Xenology

An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Extraterrestrial Life, Intelligence, and Civilization

First Edition

© 1975-1979, 2008 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.

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Preferred Literature Citation for Xenology (First Edition):

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Xenology: An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Extraterrestrial Life, Intelligence, and Civilization, First Edition, Xenology Research Institute, Sacramento, CA, 1979; http://www.xenology.info/Xeno.htm

 

 

Capsule Summary of Xenology (First Edition):

Xenology: An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Extraterrestrial Life, Intelligence, and Civilization (First Edition, Xenology Research Institute, 1975-1979, 2008). Topics include the history of the idea of extraterrestrial life; comparative planetology, stars, and galaxies; xenobiology (definition/origin of life, exotic biochemistries, and possible alien bioenergetics, biomechanics, sensations, reproduction, and intelligence); extraterrestrial civilizations (energy sources, biotechnology, interstellar travel, alien weapons, planetary and stellar engineering, xenosociology, and extraterrestrial governments and culture); interstellar communication techniques; and the sociology, legal issues, and appropriate interaction protocols pertaining to first contact.

 

 


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Xenology: An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Extraterrestrial Life, Intelligence, and Civilization

First Edition

© 1975-1979, 2008 Robert A. Freitas Jr. (CV) All Rights Reserved.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Table of Contents ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Preface and Acknowledgements for the First Edition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

PART ONE:  Perspectives

 

Chapter 1.  Introduction*

 

 

Chapter 2.  Extraterrestrial Life:  The History of an Idea ..... Local Copy (HTML)

2.1  Ancient Beginnings ..... Local Copy (HTML)

2.2  The Long Interregnum ..... Local Copy (HTML)

2.3  Plurality of Worlds and Divine Purpose ..... Local Copy (HTML)

2.4  Science and Science Fiction ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 3.  The Aliens Among Us ..... Local Copy (HTML)

3.1  Xenoarchaeology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.1.1  Extraterrestrial Intervention in Biological Evolution ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.1.2  Extraterrestrial Cultural Intervention ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.1.3  Extraterrestrial Artifacts and Manifestations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

3.2  Ufology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.2.1  Why Believe in UFOs? ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.2.2  The Evidence for UFOs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.2.3  The UFO Game ..... Local Copy (HTML)

3.3  The Resident Aliens ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 4.  Xenology:  The Context of the Universe ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.1  The Universe ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.2  Galaxies ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.3  The Milky Way Galaxy ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.4  The Stars ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 5.  General and Comparative Planetology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

5.1  Planetary Evolution ..... Local Copy (HTML)

5.2  Thalassogens ..... Local Copy (HTML)

5.3  Planetary Atmospheres ..... Local Copy (HTML)

5.4  Planetary Meteorology and Astrogeology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.4.1  Climate and Weather ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.4.2  Sky Colors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.4.3  Astrogeology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

5.5  Planetary Habitability ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

PART TWO:  Xenobiology

 

Chapter 6.  A Definition of Life ..... Local Copy (HTML)

6.1  Chronology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

6.2  What Is Life? ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.2.1  The Traditional Answer ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.2.2  Organization ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.2.3  Towards a Definition of Life ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 7.  The Origin of Life ..... Local Copy (HTML)

7.1  Historical Views on the Origin of Life ..... Local Copy (HTML)

7.2  Cosmochemical Evolution ..... Local Copy (HTML)

7.3  Early Chemical Evolution on Earth ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.3.1  Prebiotic Synthesis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

7.4  Proteins and Cells ..... Local Copy (HTML)

7.5  Nucleic Acids and DNA ..... Local Copy (HTML)

7.6  Early Biological Systems ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 8.  Exotic Biochemistries ..... Local Copy (HTML)

8.1  The Argument for Diversity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.1.1  Temperature Chauvinism ..... Local Copy (HTML)

8.2  Alternative Biochemistries ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.2.1  The Limits of Carbon Aqueous ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.2.2  Alternatives to Water ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.2.3  Alternatives to Carbon ..... Local Copy (HTML)

8.3  Exotic Lifeforms ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 9.  Experimental Xenobiology:  Searching the Family of Sol*

 

 

Chapter 10.  Alien Bioenergetics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.1  Finding the Energy to Live ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.2  Photosynthesis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.3  Animal Metabolism and Respiration ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.4  Alien Blood ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.5  Thermoregulation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 11.  Extraterrestrial Biomechanics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

11.1  Specialization and Symmetry ..... Local Copy (HTML)

11.2  Xenobiomechanics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     11.2.1  The Challenge of Gravity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     11.2.2  Meeting the Challenge:  Skeletons ..... Local Copy (HTML)

11.3  Alien Locomotion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     11.3.1  Aquatic Locomotion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     11.3.2  Travel by Land ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     11.3.3  Avian Propulsion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 12.  Alien Sex ..... Local Copy (HTML)

12.1  Is Sex Necessary? ..... Local Copy (HTML)

12.2  The Bisexual Universe ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     12.2.1  Intersexuality ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     12.2.2  Optional Sex ..... Local Copy (HTML)

12.3  Alien Sex Practices ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     12.3.1  Alien Orgasms ..... Local Copy (HTML)

12.4  Xenogamy ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 13.  Sensations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

13.1  Tactile Senses ..... Local Copy (HTML)

13.2  Olfaction ..... Local Copy (HTML)

13.3  Acoustical Senses ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     13.3.1  Two-Dimensional Sound ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     13.3.2  Three-Dimensional Sound ..... Local Copy (HTML)

13.4  Electrical and Magnetic Senses ..... Local Copy (HTML)

13.5  Vision ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     13.5.1  Visible Vision ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     13.5.2  Infrared Vision ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     13.5.3  Radio Vision ..... Local Copy (HTML)

13.6  Alien Senses ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 14.  Extraterrestrial Intelligence ..... Local Copy (HTML)

14.1  Evolution of Intelligence ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     14.1.1  In the Beginning ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     14.1.2  The Triune Brain ..... Local Copy (HTML)

14.2  Juvenile Extraterrestrial Intelligences ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     14.2.1  Genetic Sentience ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     14.2.2  Brain Sentience ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     14.2.3  Communal Sentience ..... Local Copy (HTML)

14.3  Alien Consciousness and the Sentience Quotient ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

PART THREE:  Extraterrestrial Civlizations

 

Chapter 15.  Energy and Culture ..... Local Copy (HTML)

15.1  Type I Civilizations:  Planetary Cultures ..... Local Copy (HTML)

15.2  Type II Civilizations:  Stellar Cultures ..... Local Copy (HTML)

15.3  Type III Civilizations:  Galactic Cultures ..... Local Copy (HTML)

15.4  Type IV Civilizations:  Universal Cultures ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 16.  Xenobiotechnology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

16.1  Bioneering ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.1.1  Intelligence Amplification ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.1.2  Genetic Surgery ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.1.3  Genetic Hybrids and Synthetic Genes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.1.4  Ectogenesis and Cloning ..... Local Copy (HTML)

16.2  Immortality ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.2.1  Xenogerontology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.2.2  The Limits of Immortality ..... Local Copy (HTML)

16.3  Androids and Cyborgs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.3.1  Androids and Organleggers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.3.2  The Bionic Alien ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.3.3  Enter the Robot? (aka. Uploading) ..... Local Copy (HTML)

16.4  Machine Life ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.4.1  Artificial Intelligence ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.4.2  Robots and Robotics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     16.4.3  Machine Evolution ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 17.  Interstellar Voyaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

17.1  Communication vs. Transportation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

17.2  Relativistic Starflight ..... Local Copy (HTML)

17.3  Conventional Interstellar Propulsion Systems ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.3.1  Nuclear Pulse Propulsion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.3.2  Controlled Fusion Rocket ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.3.3  Interstellar Ramjet ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.3.4  Beamed Power Laser Propulsion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.3.5  Total Conversion Drives ..... Local Copy (HTML)

17.4  Exotic Propulsion Systems ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.4.1  Gravity Catapults ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.4.2  Antigravity and Reactionless Field Drives ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.4.3  Tachyon Starships ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.4.4  Momentum Interconversion Drives ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.4.5  Statistical Transport ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.4.6  Black Holes and Space Warps ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     17.4.7  Teleportation and Transporter Beams ..... Local Copy (HTML)

17.5  Time Travel ..... Local Copy (HTML)

17.6  Interstellar Navigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

17.7  Generation Ships and Suspended Animation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 18.  Alien Weapons ..... Local Copy (HTML)

18.1  Chemical, Biochemical, and Biological Weaponry ..... Local Copy (HTML)

18.2  Bionic Weaponry ..... Local Copy (HTML)

18.3  Sonic Weapons ..... Local Copy (HTML)

18.4  Photonic Radiative Weaponry ..... Local Copy (HTML)

18.5  Particulate Radiative Weaponry ..... Local Copy (HTML)

18.6  Nuclear Explosives ..... Local Copy (HTML)

18.7  Climate Modification and High Technology Weapons ..... Local Copy (HTML)

18.8  The Ultimate Weapon ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 19.  Planetary Engineering and Galactic High Technology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

19.1  Alien Materials Technology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     19.1.1  New Forms of Matter ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     19.1.2  Energy Storage and Mining Techniques ..... Local Copy (HTML)

19.2  Extraterrestrial Habitat Engineering ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     19.2.1  Terraforming ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     19.2.2  Space Habitats ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     19.2.3  Planet Moving and Star Mining ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     19.2.4  Large Scale Biospheric Engineering ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     19.2.5  Galactic Megastructures ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 20.  Xenosociology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

20.1  Biological Evolution ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     20.1.1  Evolution Rates ..... Local Copy (HTML)

20.2  Xenopsychology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     20.2.1  Energy Ecology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     20.2.2  Competition and Aggression ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     20.2.3  Universal Emotions ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     20.2.4  Xenophobia ..... Local Copy (HTML)

20.3  Early Technological Civilizations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     20.3.1  Telluric Civilizations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     20.3.2  Aquatic Civilizations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     20.3.3  Avian Civilizations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

20.4  Alien Social Systems ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     20.4.1  Models for Extraterrestrial Societies ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 21.  Extraterrestrial Governments ..... Local Copy (HTML)

21.1  Dimensions of Extraterrestrial Government ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.1.1  Governance Scales ..... Local Copy (HTML)

21.2  Alien Political Organizations:  Xenopolitical Factors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.2.1  Sentience ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.2.2  Dispersion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.2.3  Size ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.2.4  Heritage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.2.5  Xenopolitics:  Tentative Conclusions ..... Local Copy (HTML)

21.3  Extraterrestrial Organizational Cybernetics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.3.1  System Complexity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.3.2  System Structure ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.3.3  System Stability ..... Local Copy (HTML)

21.4  Strategic Galactography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.4.1  The Economic Viability of Interstellar Cargo Transport ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.4.2  Galactic Trade Routes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     21.4.3  Interstellar War ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 22.  Extraterrestrial Cultures ..... Local Copy (HTML)

22.1  Alien Religion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

22.2  Alien Ritual ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.2.1  Religious Rites ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.2.2  Extraterrestrial Cults ..... Local Copy (HTML)

22.3  Ethics and Law..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.3.1  Extraterrestrial Ethics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.3.2  Legal Universals ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.3.3  Xenopenology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

22.4  Philosophy and Knowledge ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.4.1  Alien Logic ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.4.2  Time, Language, and Space ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.4.3  Science and Paradigmology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.4.4  Xenoeschatology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

22.5  Extraterrestrial Aesthetics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.5.1  Xenomusicology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.5.2  Alien Painting and Surface Arts ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.5.3  Dance and Sports ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     22.5.4  Alien Sculpture and Architecture ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

PART FOUR:  First Contact

 

Chapter 23.  Abodes of Life:  The Search Begins ..... Local Copy (HTML)

23.1  Theoretical Galactic Demography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     23.1.1  The Drake Equation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

23.2  Observational Galactic Demography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     23.2.1  Direct Observation of Alien Planets ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 24.  Interstellar Communication Techniques ..... Local Copy (HTML)

24.1  The Cosmic Miracle ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.1.1  Eavesdropping ..... Local Copy (HTML)

24.2  Extraterrestrial Signaling ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.2.1  Alternative Channels:  HEPs, Neutrinos, Gravitons and Tachyons ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.2.2  Electromagnetic Waves and Frequency Selection ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.2.3  Acquisition and Artificiality Criteria ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.2.4  Alien Message Contents ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.2.5  SETI:  Yesterday and Today ..... Local Copy (HTML)

24.3  Extraterrestrial Starprobes and Artifacts ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.3.1  Why Probes are Better ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.3.2  Mission Profile ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.3.3  The Nature of Alien Artifacts ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     24.3.4  Project Daedalus ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 25.  Theory and Practice of First Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

25.1  First Contact and Metalaw ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.1.1  Basic Metalaw ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.1.2  Fasan's Metalaws ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.1.3  Universal Thermoethical Principles of First Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

25.2  The Character of First Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.2.1  Mass-Energy Scales of Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.2.2  Information-Rate Scales of Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.2.3  Generalized First Contact Taxonomy ..... Local Copy (HTML)

25.3  First Contact Protocols and Elementary Astropolitics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.3.1  Encounters Between Equals:  The 0/0 Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.3.2  Gods and Primitives:  The 11/0 Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.3.3  Trees and Humans:  The 0/10 Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     25.3.4  Higher-Order Contacts ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 26.  First Contact and the Human Response ..... Local Copy (HTML)

26.1  Military and Political Response ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.1.1  Remote Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.1.2  Direct Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.1.3  Surprise Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

26.2  Public Reaction and the Press ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.2.1  Rumor and Credibility ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.2.2  Panic and Mass Hysteria ..... Local Copy (HTML)

26.3  Legal Issues of First Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.3.1  Alien Animals ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.3.2  Legal Standards of Personhood ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.3.3  Extraterrestrial Persons ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.3.4  Aliens and American Law ..... Local Copy (HTML)

26.4  Human Sociocultural Response ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.4.1  The Acculturation of Humanity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.4.2  Social Impact of First Contact ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.4.3  The Religious Response ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     26.4.4  Impact on Science and Technology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 27.  The Cosmic Perspective*

 

 

Appendix A.  What To Do If You Encounter Alien Beings or Their Craft ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Appendix B.  Conferences, Symposia, and Red-Letter Dates through 1979 ..... Local Copy (HTML)

REFERENCES ..... Refs1-4183

 

* Not available

 

 

 

 

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Xenology (First Edition), last updated on 6 January 2009

since 6 December 2008